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直击8月北美SAT考试真题、答案在这里

来源:admin 时间:2019-09-02 17:19 热度:0

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本次SAT北美8月考试落下帷幕,值得庆幸的是大家考的都是新题。根据大家的反应来看,普遍都有加试而且大部分学生觉得小说比较难,其他文章和科目都比较正常。下面我们就来看下真题。


阅读部分


第一篇

Miss Marsalles is having another party. (Out of musical integrity, or her heart’s bold yearning for festivity, she never calls it a recital.) My mother is not an inventive or convincing liar, and the excuses which occur to her are obviously second-rate. The painters are coming. Friends from Ottawa. Poor Carrie is having her tonsils out. In the end all she can say is: Oh, but won’t all that be too much trouble, now? Now being weighted with several troublesome meanings; you may take your choice. Now that Miss Marsalles has moved from the brick and frame bungalow>

Now? asks Miss Marsalles, stung, pretending mystification, or perhaps for that matter really feeling it. And she asks how her June party could ever be too much trouble, at any time, in any place? It is the>

She phones up Marg French who like herself is an old pupil of Miss Marsalles and who has been having lessons for her twins, and they commiserate for a while and promise to go together and buck each other up. They remember the year before last when it rained and the little hall was full of raincoats piled>

“Of course that was not Miss Marsalles’ fault.”


They giggle despairingly. “No. But things like that did not use to happen.”


【因篇幅关系,此处仅截取部分内容】


参考答案


01 主旨题 = traditional customs and practices ... upheld when change; 


02 写作视角题 = seems to know everything about the adoults around her; 


03 单询证 idealsitic view of her professon = all children need music. all child love music in their heart; (本题有争议,有人选A;目前认为D更靠谱);


04 推断题;mother is not an inventive or convincing liar = unskilled at deception; 


05 无行号细节题;one reason ... mother is unenthusiastic about party = think Miss M new home will be a poor site ; 


06 推断题 repeating "Now?" Miss M emphasize = nothing ... should prevent her party from occuring; 


07 句子功能题 main effect of the questions = anxiety the characters feel; 


08 无行号细节题 who values the piano least = Joan Crimble; 


09 询证题*2;今昔对比 includes details about recent party at Miss M = no longer as successfully as they>

10 line52-53 “No. But things like that did not use to happen”;


第二篇


Getting out the vote


Only about half of the people who could vote in the 2012 U.S. presidential election actually did so (53.6 percent of the voting-age population). This puts turnout in the U.S. among the worst in developed countries. By way of contrast, 87.2 percent of Belgians, 80.5 percent of Australians and 73.1 percent of Finns voted in their last elections. In a nation quick to defend democracy both within its borders and beyond, why are more Americans not exercising what is arguably their biggest democratic right?

Certainly there are political and mechanical obstacles within the American voting climate that make it difficult for people to even get to the polls, such as onerous voter ID laws or a shortage of polling stations in some locales. The absence of automatic voter registration (as in Finland) or mandatory registration (as in Australia) also limits turnout.

But beyond these structural hurdles, most theories that examine the mindset of those who do not vote speak to disengagement from electoral politics or disbelief in government's ability to affect progress. Solutions that aim to address these problems typically inform people about the importance of their vote in electing a government that works for them. Yet this tactic does not appear to sway many. Despite such efforts, turnout has consistently hovered around 50 percent for the past nine U.S. presidential elections—the highest being 56.9 percent in 2008.

Behavioral science might explain why these informational interventions fall short. A substantive body of evidence indicates that the environment in which we make decisions can fundamentally alter them. For example, what we think others are doing, how voting makes us feel about ourselves, and what we need to do to vote all affect whether or not we participate on Election Day. So instead of simply telling Americans to vote, the science suggests we need to think about the context in which citizens decide to cast their ballots.

A number of traditional mobilization efforts are directed at getting citizens to agree they will vote come election time. But just as many of us intend to exercise, eat healthy and save for retirement, people often fail to act on their intentions. As a 2015 review by researchers at Harvard University and the University of Pennsylvania concluded, making concrete plans can help people translate goals into actions across a number of domains.

In a field experiment conducted among 287,000 would-be voters in Pennsylvania during the 2008 Democratic primary election, researchers tried to see if voter turnout could be increased by helping people make a concrete plan to implement their intentions. One to three days before the November 2008 election, behavioral scientists David Nickerson, now at Temple University, and Todd Rogers of Harvard asked one group of would-be voters about their intentions to vote and a second group about their intentions and also about when, where and how they would accomplish the goal of voting.

Voter records showed that making a plan was more than twice as effective as simply asking people about their intentions. Overall there was a 4.1 percentage point increase in the likelihood of voting by making a plan relative to people who did not receive a phone call. (The average effectiveness of commercial phone banks, assessed from dozens of studies, is about one percentage point.)

Conventional wisdom (and practice) suggests that we could convince people to vote by stressing that their particular ballot is very important because not many other people are voting. Yet findings in behavioral science indicate that most of us are motivated by the desire to conform to the social norm—meaning we are more likely to do what most people are doing.

Two get-out-the-vote field experiments during the 2005 general election in New Jersey and the 2006 primary election in California tested these hypotheses. They found that individuals were much more motivated to vote when they believed lots of other people were voting compared with when they thought relatively few others were voting.

In another field experiment run by researchers at Yale University and the University of Northern Iowa during the 2006 primary election in Michigan, potential voters received direct mail noting that both they and their neighbors would be informed of who had voted after the election. Amazingly, this led to an 8.1 percent increase in turnout—one of the most successful get-out-the-vote tactics studied to date. Conventional direct-mail reminders, in contrast, yield just a 0.162 percent increase in turnout on average, according to a 2013 estimate based on 110 studies.

If most of us vote, then being part of the truant few who do not feels like we are shirking a social contract. Publicizing voting records may therefore increase the salience of this social obligation and possibly bring shame on nonvoters. Following through, however, allows them to maintain their self-identity as contributing members of society.

Some of the largest-ever experimental effects on voter turnout come from an experiment that used people's desire to shape or conform to a worthy self-identity, that is, the identity of “someone who votes.”

In a study published in 2011, psychologists at Stanford University and Harvard presented would-be voters in the 2008 presidential election in California and in the 2009 gubernatorial election in New Jersey with a preelection survey that framed voting as either an expression of self-identity (“How important is it to you to be a voter?”) or simply an activity (“How important is it to you to vote?”). In both cases, participants completed the survey the day before or the morning of the election.

Being “a voter,” one might argue, is about who you are as an upstanding citizen—a part of your identity that feels good to embrace and act on. The act of voting is simply that, an action, and one that anyone can, in principle, take. The results showed a remarkable 10.9 percentage point increase in turnout among people in the “voter” identity condition.

Such an increase nationally could have historic consequences. Indeed, it would bring American voter turnout up to 64.5 percent—ahead of both Canada and the U.K., lifting the nation from 31st to 19th place out of 34 developed countries in a Pew Research Center analysis.

Although tackling political barriers to voting remains critical, the great strength of these behavioral interventions lies in their ability to overwhelm obstacles by catalyzing citizen motivation. And for people who do not vote because they believe one person's ballot cannot change election outcomes, behavioral science also offers a reason why voting is important for individuals.

Research has found that in addition to signaling who we are to others, our actions tell us something about ourselves—shaping our own preferences and beliefs. From this perspective, people who do not vote are not merely abstaining from the democratic process in one instance. They are also “telling” themselves: “I don't care about politics.” Moving forward, they may also become less interested in civic rights, local governance, foreign affairs, and so on. And for those who do vote, participation is not just an expression of interest in current politics but also a seed that could grow into an active political life.


参考答案


11 无行号细节题;N and R seek to answer in their study = would prompting people to think ahead ... increase vote ;  


12 单询证;voters desire to be viewed as civically responsible = line 74-76 ... allows them to maintain their self-identity as contribute ...; 


13 文章主旨 = explain how insights from a particular scientific field might be used to increase vote turnout; 


14 词汇题;simply = merely; 真题考过;


15 询证题*2;which motivates many people to vote = a teacher signs up for a conference after learning several teacher will attend; 


16 line46-50 Yet findings in behavioral science indicat ... ;  


17 词汇题 yield = produce; 真题考过;


18 读图题;figure1, greatest percentage increase vote = person was asked a definite plan for voting; 


19 读图题;quotation from 2010 paper by N and R from Figure 1. which choice best helps explain a finding regarding multiple-voter = target in one-eligible-boter households were less likely to have made voting plan before ... ;


20 图文结合题; researchers who conducted the 2006 study ... to assess = the effectiveness of a conventional strategy compared with newer strategies; 



第三篇


From day-to-day observations, the impact of human activity on the environment around us is not so obvious. However, a collection of satellite images from 1984 to 2012 speaks volumes: in the course of only three decades, much of the Earth’s verdant landscape has gradually given way to gray cities, marking the long-term impact of urbanization. For better or for worse, humans have distinctly altered their natural surroundings, forcing other species to either adapt or go extinct.

It is not easy to develop new habits for a new environment. Many animals have been compelled to adjust their behavior, gradually learning to avoid, outsmart, or even befriend their new urban neighbors. Now, a recent study conducted by University of Minnesota biologist Emilie C. Snell-Rood and undergraduate Naomi Wick suggests that some animals have adapted to the presence of humans by developing bigger brains.


A type of anole lizard in the Bahamas has developed shorter legs to adapt to urban vegetation. Courtesy of Reptile Place.

In their study, Snell-Rood and Wick focused on local animal specimens collected at the University of Minnesota Bell Museum. By measuring the breadth, width, and height of various mammal skulls, they were able to estimate the size of the species’ brains. Remarkably, in the white-footed mouse and the meadow vole, they found that specimens from the city displayed a 6 percent increase in brain capacity over their rural counterparts.

Snell-Rood provides two possible explanations for these findings. An increase in nutritional quantity and quality, which urbanization provides to some extent, may give animals the energy required to maintain larger brains. However, the increase in skull size was not accompanied by an increase in body size, making this theory less likely. A more probable and interesting hypothesis is that adapting to human activity places a larger demand on cognitive skills, such as foraging for food and interacting with humans.


Snell-Rood and Wick measured mouse skulls in order to estimate their brain size. Courtesy of Jennifer Simonson.

The growing impact of city environments on animal behavior, a trend dubbed “synurbanization,” is well-documented. By destroying or radically transforming natural habitats, cities create new, unfilled niches and force local species to adapt. Studies of resulting animal behavior report changes such as increased friendliness toward humans, new nesting preferences, and longer waking hours. For some city-dwelling animals, humans have also become a primary supplier of food. As human metropolises continue to grow, the effects of synurbanization have been conspicuous and profound. Snell-Rood’s study, however, is the first that points to a possible link between behavioral change and brain size.

An additional finding in the new study suggests that the influence of human activity extends beyond cities as well. According to Snell-Rood’s measurements, four rural species exhibited a boost in brain size, revealing that they, too, may have been affected by changing environments. For instance, an impact like deforestation may force bats in the countryside to change their feeding and roosting habits.


Evolutionary biologist Emilie Snell-Rood examines shrew specimens at the University of Minnesota Bell Museum. Courtesy of Jennifer Simonson.

Snell-Rood’s discovery is not the first time scientists have found evidence of human activity driving animal evolution. In London, industrial pollution gave dark peppered moths an advantage over the lighter ones, enabling them to blend in with layers of soot. By contrast, the white peppered moths, which once blended in with tree bark and lichens, lost their evolutionary advantage and became less numerous. A second example of human-driven evolution is a type of anole lizard, which developed shorter legs to adapt to urban areas in the Bahamas. While long legs are suitable for perching on wide surfaces, with shorter legs the lizard is better equipped to climb the narrow stalks that are typical of urban plants.

While Snell-Rood’s findings are significant, additional research needs to be conducted on other specimens to determine whether the trend continues in other regions. The age of the museum collections is also an important factor, as the Minnesota researchers could only study specimens from the past century — the brain sizes of animals that lived before major industrialization remain unknown.

Still, the results are striking in their implications. The evolution of bigger brains in animals sheds new light upon how deeply our actions affect the surrounding ecology. We humans are not the only ones who have adapted to our environment, developing tools and technology to master nature. It turns out that the animals around us are learning too — and perhaps getting smarter.


参考答案

21 词汇功能题;befriend their new urban neighbors = animals take advantage of the benefits provided by humans;


22  词汇题 displayed = exhibited; 


23 询证题*2; which effect would be seen in white-footed mice and meadow vole populations if changes in nutrition were the sole explanation = the brain size and body sizes of white-footed mice and meadow voles would increase concurrentlly;  


24 line 24-26; however, the increase in skull size was not accompanied by in increase in body size; 


25 主旨变化题 = a description of a study and its findings to a discussion of prior observation; 


26 无行号细节题; how would the author respond to an attempt to draw general conclusions from the finding = cautioning that the finding are not definitive and require further research;  


27 询证题*2; profound changes to an evvironment can have which effect on organisms native to it? = characteristics previously beneficial to the organisms can become detrimental .. 


28 line 61-64 = By contrast, the white peppered moths, which once blended in with tree bark and lichens, lost their evolutionary advantage and became less numerous; 


29 读图题 figure 1 the mean cranial capacity of the rural specimens of P = 1400 cubic millimeters; 


30 读图题 Which comparison of Mp and Pl specimens best suppot by the data in figure 1 = rural Pl was greater than unban Mp; 


31 读图题 Figure 2 indicate rural Ml from 1940 is closest to which value = 345 cubic millimeters; 


第四篇

Is it the duty of these states to assist France? That we are bound by treaty, and how far, I will not say; because it is not necessary. We are bound by a higher principle, if our assistance could avail; the great law of humanity.


We might, it is true, alledge the stipulations of a treaty, and the guarantee of her possessions to France. But all the world would know, and we ought to avow it, that it is the cause of republicanism which would induce our efforts. The tyrant of Great-Britain alledged the stipulations of a treaty relative to the opening of the Schaldt and waiting for no requisition on the part of Holland to observe the guarentee. But all the world knew, and he might have avowed it, that it was not the opening of the Scheldt, but the attack upon monarchy, that prompted his inter|position. Shall kings combine, and shall repub|lics not unite? We have united. The heart of America feels the cause of France; she takes a part in all her councils; approves her wisdom; blames her excesses; she is moved, impelled, elevated and depressed; with all the changes of her good and bad fortune; she feels the same fu|ry in her veins; she is tossed and shaken with all the variety of hopes and fears, attending her situation: Why not? Can we be indifferent? Is not our fate interlaced with hers? For, O France! if thy republic perish, where is the ho|nor due to ours? From whom respect to our flag upon the seas? Not from France restored to a monarch, and indignant at these very feel|ings which are now our glory: Not from the despots that are against her: These will easily re|collect that the cause of their evils took their rise here.

Can we assist France by arming in her favor? I will not say that we can. But could we, and should France say, United States, your neutra|lity is not sufficient; we expect the junction of your arms with mine; your heroes on the soil, and your privateers on the ocean, to distress the foes; who is there would not say, It shall be so…


参考答案

32 词汇题 bound = obligated; 


33 单询证 B has some doubts about the ability of US armed forces to assist France effectively = line 26-27 Can we assist France by arming in her favor? I will not say that we can; 


34 无行号细节题;P1, B indicates the treaty between the US and France = not the most compelling reason for the US to ally with France; 


35 无行号细节题;B views the relationship between the US and France is = basic principles and destinies of both countries are interwined; 


36 主旨题;P2, Hamilton's main purpose is to = provide several arguments against embarking on a particular course of action; 


37 词汇题 certain = definite; 


38 段落功能题 5th paragragh serve to = summerize a counterclaim with the intention to refuting it ;


39 双篇关系题 = B supports a position that H considers to be unwise; 


40 双篇求异题;两篇文章各自写作手法 = B appeals to emotion vs H appeals to reason and practical considerations; 


41 双篇互联题;P2 H views P1 line 22-23 = they would retaliate strongly if US became involved in the conflict with France; 


42 互联题询证 = line 39-42 the resentment of the combined powers against us if we should take part in the war; 


第五篇


Mercury was long thought to be lacking volatile compounds that cause explosive volcanism. That view started to change when the MESSENGER spacecraft returned pictures of pyroclastic deposits — the telltale signature of volcanic explosions. Now more detailed data from MESSENGER shows that volcanoes exploded on Mercury for a substantial portion of the planet’s history. The findings suggest Mercury not only had volatiles but held on to them for longer than scientists had expected.

Measuring geological timeTwo pyroclastic vents on the floor of Mercury’s Kipling crater, top, would likely not have survived the impact; they are more recent. The false color image of the same spot, bottom, marks pyroclastic material as brownish red.PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] — The surface of Mercury crackled with volcanic explosions for extended periods of the planet’s history, according to a new analysis led by researchers at Brown University. The findings are surprising considering Mercury wasn’t supposed to have explosive volcanism in the first place, and they could have implications for understanding how Mercury formed.

On Earth, volcanic explosions like the one that tore the lid off Mount St. Helens happen because our planet’s interior is rich in volatiles — water, carbon dioxide and other compounds with relatively low boiling points. As lava rises from the depths toward the surface, volatiles dissolved within it change phase from liquid to gas, expanding in the process. The pressure of that expansion can cause the crust above to burst like an overinflated balloon.

Mercury, however, was long thought to be bone dry when it comes to volatiles, and without volatiles there can’t be explosive volcanism. But that view started to change in 2008, after NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft made its first flybys of Mercury. Those glimpses of the surface revealed deposits of pyroclastic ash — the telltale signs of volcanic explosions — peppering the planet’s surface. It was a clue that at some point in its history Mercury’s interior wasn’t as bereft of volatiles as had been assumed.

What wasn’t clear from those initial flybys was the timeframe over which those explosions occurred. Did Mercury’s volatiles escape in a flurry of explosions early in the planet’s history or has Mercury held on to its volatiles over a much longer period?

This latest work, available in online early view at the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, suggests the latter.

A team of researchers led by Tim Goudge, a graduate student in the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown, looked at 51 pyroclastic sites distributed across Mercury’s surface. They used data from MESSENGER’s cameras and spectrometers collected after the spacecraft entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. Compared with the data from the initial flybys, the orbital data provided a much more detailed view of the deposits and the source vents that spat them out.

The new MESSENGER data revealed that some of the vents have eroded to a much greater degree than others — an indicator that the explosions didn’t happen all at the same time.

“If [the explosions] happened over a brief period and then stopped, you’d expect all the vents to be degraded by approximately the same amount,” Goudge said. “We don’t see that; we see different degradation states. So the eruptions appear to have been taking place over an appreciable period of Mercury’s history.”

But just where that period of explosiveness fits into Mercury’s geological history was another matter. To help figure that out, Goudge and his colleagues took advantage of the fact that most of the sites are located within impact craters. The age of each crater offers an important constraint in the age of the pyroclastic deposit inside it: The deposit has to be younger than its host crater. If the deposit had come first, it would have been obliterated by the impact that formed the crater. So the age of the crater provides an upper limit on how old the pyroclastic deposit can be.

As it happens, there’s an established method for dating craters on Mercury. The rims and walls of craters become eroded and degraded over time, and the extent of that degradation can be used to get an approximate age of the crater.

Using that method, Goudge and his colleagues showed that some pyroclastic deposits are found in relatively young (geologically speaking) craters dated to between 3.5 and 1 billion years old. The finding helps rule out the possibility that all the pyroclastic activity happened shortly after Mercury’s formation around 4.5 billion years ago.

“These ages tell us that Mercury didn’t degas all of its volatiles very early,” Goudge said. “It kept some of its volatiles around to more recent geological times.”

The extent to which Mercury’s volatiles stuck around could shed light on how the planet formed. Despite being the smallest planet in the solar system (since Pluto was demoted from the ranks of the planets), Mercury has an abnormally large iron core. That finding led to speculation the perhaps Mercury was once much larger, but had its outer layers removed — either fried away by the nearby Sun or perhaps blasted away be a huge impact early in the planet’s history. Either of those events, however, would likely have heated the outer parts of Mercury enough to remove volatiles very early in its history.

In light of this study and other data collected by MESSENGER showing traces of the volatiles sulfur, potassium, and sodium on Mercury’s surface, both those scenarios seem increasingly unlikely.

“Together with other results that suggest the Moon may have had more volatiles than previously thought, this research is revolutionizing our thinking about the early history of the planets and satellites,” said Jim Head, professor of geological sciences and a MESSENGER mission co-investigator. “These results define specific targets for future exploration of Mercury by orbiting and landed spacecraft.”


参考答案

43 单询证 broad implications for astronomy in general = line 90-95 “Together with other results that suggest the Moon may have had more volatiles than previously thought, this research is revolutionizing our thinking about the early history of the planets and satellites,”; 


44 无行号细节题 = which claim about M do the data provided by the initial MESSENGER flybys support = M's interior once contained elements and compounds with relatively low boiling points; 


45 文章主旨题 = describe the investigation of an initially surprising findng;


46 无行号细节题; best states the conclusion reached by G team?= volcanic explsions occured on M over much of the planet history; 


47 无行号细节题; compare with M data in 2008, M data in 2011 was more = comprehensive in scope; 


48 词汇题 states = conditions; 


49 无行号细节题; how did scientists determine that not all the volcanic explosions occured after the M formation = some craters containing pyro- deposits were created quite a long time after mercury formed; 


50 词汇题 shed = cast; 


51 询证题*2; disparity between M's small size and its abnormally large iron core = it cannot be explained by current theories regarding M's formation; 


52 line 86-88 ; In light of this study and other data collected by MESSENGER showing traces of the volatiles sulfur, potassium, and sodium on Mercury’s surface, both those scenarios seem increasingly unlikely.



语法部分


本次考试语法部分整体难度适中,大体考点均为常见出题形式,仅有一两道考察固定搭配的题目难度较高。加试是语法部分的同学会遇到一整篇文章,共18个题。


文章关于AbigailAdams(John Adams的夫人)是如何在一个男性主导的社会做出自己对女性独立的贡献的。文章有多个分节,主要内容关于Adams夫人如何挣钱以及离世后将遗产继承给大部分女性继承者的故事。词汇题涉及的词语分别是:scarce,deficient,incomplete,meager。


Science Says


“让科学来说话”


一篇规整的说明文,介绍了科学家除了学术能力之外的一项重要能力:交流能力。一方面交流能力能够很好帮助科学家进行科普,建立科学和大众之间的桥梁;另一方面的主旨有考察题目,主要容易混淆的两个选项为“帮助科学家获得更多资金”和“降低科学家互相间的沟通成本”。


题目涉及的语法考点包括:平行结构、标点的使用、语气题、单复数、时态等题目,难度适中。


Q1:

Over the course of their training,scientists are expected to learn critical thinking skills,research

methods,and expected to learn detailed subject matter.

 

此题选detailed subject matter,选项中的唯一一个名词,主要考察平行结构,名词平行。


Q2:

However,both the public at large and scientists themselves would benefit if scientists"training were to include the development of effective communication skills: the public would learn about exciting and important research findings, while scientists would see increased support for their work.

此题选“skills:"这个选项,主要考察标点符号的用法。虽然“skills, and”这个选项的语法也是对的,但是逻辑上不对。大家注意蓝色的部分,应该是后面这句话解释说明前面的内容。


Q3:

引出下文题目.

选择 help shape popular perception of the sciences.这个选项。因为后文都是在表达这个意思,强调科学家和普通民众的交流。


Q4:

逻辑词题目

Books by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking have sold millions of copies and inspired widespread interest in astronomy and physics.

【    】 scientists can even help shape public policy,as Rachel Carson did with her 1962 book Silent Spring,a work often credited with inspiring the modern environmental movement in the United States.

选择in some cases (“在某些情况下”的意思) 这个题按说是并列关系的,但是没有这个选项。那就只能选择in some cases来表示下一个点了,这个词和后文的even页能很好对应在一起。

 

Q5:

比较结构的逻辑性的题目

most researchers will not reach as many people as these celebrated figures have.

选择these celebrated figures have这个选项,带有those和xxx of的结构是不对的,不能和主语一致。根据“主谓”比“主谓”的基本原则,应该选these celebrated figures这个选项。

 

Q6:

平行结构X标点符号

including 【blogs: magazine articles,】 and interviews.

应该选择选项构成blogs,magazine articles,and interviews这个结构。其中注意magazine一定要和article连在一起,因为如果不这样,magazine的单复数无法解释。


Q7:

they must cultivate their ability to 【communicate】with nonspecialist audiences in ways that are

clear and engaging.

简洁题,选最短的communicate


Q8:

Communication skills are perhaps 【the biggest deal】 for writing grant proposals.

语气题,选最正式的most essential

 

Q9:

问到划线的部分是否应该删除

Scientists often must apply to public and private funding organizations for resources to conduct

their research,【and their funding proposals are read by non-experts as well as experts.】

Researchers must therefore be able to explain the significance of their work in simple,compelling

terms to people without much background knowledge.

是否删除呢?笔者认为不应该删除,因为正如大家看到的后文正好说的就是nonexperts,那么这里引出后文是最好的。所以选择不删除,理由是set up引出后文。

 

Q10:

选择the ability to write an accessible grant proposal can have direct effects on how and what

research is done.这个选项。因为这段都在讲作为科学家应该具有写好的资金申请的能力。具体大家可以看这一段的第二句:Communication skills are perhaps most essential for writing grant proposals.也是出题的一句话.

 

Q11:

本题考查时态:

Increasingly,as scientists [would recognize] the vital role of communication skills in their fields,

colleges are introducing classes on communication for undergraduate and graduate students in the sciences.

应该选择recognize,一般现在时。因为这里是”主将从现”,主句的are introducing是瞬间动词的进行时表示将来的意思,所以正好符合”主将从现”.


Rock and Roll en Español 


“用西班牙语唱摇滚”


讲述了西班牙语世界的摇滚乐的发展。文章讲到了一个叫做Los Lobos的乐队,获得了好多次格莱美奖,甚至进入了摇滚乐名人堂。而西班牙摇滚乐今天仍然在西语世界很火,而且有了自己的风格,并且从乌拉圭和阿根廷火遍全世界。


文章考到了常考的标点符号题目,主要考察逗号的用法,涉及到句子结构,找到主干相信大家就不会做错了。固定搭配题应该选择for(be known for因为…而出名),词汇题应该选择distinctive(备选选项有divergent,indiscriminate等)。


Q1:

考察标点符号

in the 1960s and 1970s a new genre of 【music,rock en español, (rock in Spanish)】emerged

from the Rio de la Plata region of Argentina and Uruguay.

主语应该是a new genre of music,后面的 rock en español应该做的是插入结构,而括号里面的

rock in Spanish应该用来解释前面的专有名词rock en español,所以应该是选择【music,rock en

español(rock in Spanish)】这个选项

 

Q2:

考察添加和删除,考察【A form of rock and roll that incorporates elements of traditional Latin music】这一部分是否应该添加或者删除。笔者认为应该添加, 因为后文的信息都是围绕了

incorporates elements of traditional Latin music这个关键信息展开的,所以应该添加,选择

introductory information的选项。

 

Q3:

简洁题fans worldwide 最为简洁。


Q4:

词组题

The Río de la Plata region is known for a rich musical heritage that includes such traditional dance

music as tango and milonga,which feature the violin,double bass,and bandoneon,an instrument

similar to the accordion.

应该选择for, be known for是固定搭配,毕竟前面的Rio de la Plata是一个地区,这个地区应该“以丰富的音乐蕴藏而闻名”.

 

Q5:

句子结构题目,选择including这个选项。其中“. Including”的选项,缺少主句;“: and including”的选项更是错的离谱。

 

Q6:

逻辑词题目,选择instead这个选项。前面说不想创造西班牙语世界的披头士,“反而”想要融合当地的风俗特色。

 

Q7:

引入后文主旨的题目。这一段后文的内容主要讲述rock en español的巨大发展在国际上也取得了声誉和威望,甚至到了美国。所以选择spread beyond Argentina and' Uruguay较为合适。sensation这个选项看上去也比较合理但是过于概括了不够具体。

 

Q8:

词汇题。indiscriminate;divergent;individual;distinctive,最后选择distinctive。“具有特色的”。

 

Q9:

Los Lobos's diverse influences are evident in the variety of instruments the band [play,] including the saxophone,flute,harmonica,mandolin,guitarron,accordion,and banjo.

主谓一致题目,band是单数,所以选择plays。

 

Q10:

选择最好的支持细节

Both offer their own unique spin on Santaolalla's original fusion:Bajofondo blends traditional Rio

de la Plata sounds with elements of rock, hip-hop,and jazz,and Junanes, a native of Colombia,

【uses the nostalgic tango as inspiration for his music.】

这一句的主要内容是“他们都用自己方式诠释了Santaolalla原本的畅想。Santaolalla原本的畅想是要Santaolalla blended the heavy beat of US and British rock with the lively and melodic sounds of the Rio de la Plata region.

所以笔者认为,所以这里应该融合地方特色和国外的音乐:选择draws on not only the rhythmic

cumbia but also the music of the Beatles这个选项.

 

Q11:

行结构的固定塔配,not just xxx but xxx前后要主行

 

Gwen Ifill’s Legacy


“Gwen Ifill的遗产” 


GwenIfill是一位黑人记者,她见证了黑人从20世纪到如今在政坛上发挥越来越重要的作用。从1980年代到21世纪,黑人从政者从地方行政长官一路到成为总统。同时,Ifill自己也在成为国家级记者的道路上一路成功。最终,Ifill自己为新一代的记者树立了榜样,为记者行业留下了宝贵的财富。


题目第一个难点是第一道题的固定搭配;


第二个难点是后面出现的标点符号,人名和非限制性定语从句的问题;


第三个考点考察了冒号的用法(作解释说明),并且冒号前必须保证是完整句子。排序题比较简单,按照时间线索就可以解决。


词组词汇题给出了四个介词副词部分都不一样的选项,意思是“当Ifill刚刚【开始进入】记者行业时”,题目的难度较高,备选选项有:starting out in,starting up at等。


Q1:

考察标点符号

in the 1960s and 1970s a new genre of 【music,rock en español, (rock in Spanish)】emerged

from the Rio de la Plata region of Argentina and Uruguay.

主语应该是a new genre of music,后面的 rock en español应该做的是插入结构,而括号里面的

rock in Spanish应该用来解释前面的专有名词rock en español,所以应该是选择【music,rock en

español(rock in Spanish)】这个选项


Q2:

考察添加和删除,考察【A form of rock and roll that incorporates elements of traditional Latin music】这一部分是否应该添加或者删除。笔者认为应该添加, 因为后文的信息都是围绕了

incorporates elements of traditional Latin music这个关键信息展开的,所以应该添加,选择

introductory information的选项。


Q3:

简洁题fans worldwide 最为简洁。


Q4:

词组题

The Río de la Plata region is known for a rich musical heritage that includes such traditional dance

music as tango and milonga,which feature the violin,double bass,and bandoneon,an instrument

similar to the accordion.

应该选择for, be known for是固定搭配,毕竟前面的Rio de la Plata是一个地区,这个地区应该“以丰富的音乐蕴藏而闻名”.


Q5:

句子结构题目,选择including这个选项。其中“. Including”的选项,缺少主句;“: and including”的选项更是错的离谱。


Q6:

逻辑词题目,选择instead这个选项。前面说不想创造西班牙语世界的披头士,“反而”想要融合当地的风俗特色。


Q7:

引入后文主旨的题目。这一段后文的内容主要讲述rock en español的巨大发展在国际上也取得了声誉和威望,甚至到了美国。所以选择spread beyond Argentina and' Uruguay较为合适。sensation这个选项看上去也比较合理但是过于概括了不够具体。


Q8:

词汇题。

indiscriminate;divergent;individual;distinctive,最后选择distinctive。“具有特色的”。


Q9:

Los Lobos's diverse influences are evident in the variety of instruments the band [play,] including the saxophone,flute,harmonica,mandolin,guitarron,accordion,and banjo.

主谓一致题目,band是单数,所以选择plays。


Q10:

选择最好的支持细节

Both offer their own unique spin>de la Plata sounds with elements of rock, hip-hop,and jazz,and Junanes, a native of Colombia,

【uses the nostalgic tango as inspiration for his music.】

这一句的主要内容是“他们都用自己方式诠释了Santaolalla原本的畅想。Santaolalla原本的畅想是要Santaolalla blended the heavy beat of US and British rock with the lively and melodic sounds of the Rio de la Plata region.

所以笔者认为,所以这里应该融合地方特色和国外的音乐:选择draws>cumbia but also the music of the Beatles这个选项.


Q11:

行结构的固定塔配,not just xxx but xxx前后要主行



A Plant’s Response to Temperature


“植物对于温度的反应”


自然科学类的说明文。内附两篇图表,非常常规的考点。文章详细解释了为什么温度会影响指物开花的时间。研究表明,低温下植物会减缓reproduction的过程,主要原因是植物内部的化学物质在不同温度下的反应有别。语气题应该选environmental cues,用以和文章整个的正式口吻相匹配。错误选项关于“mother nature”等不正式的说法可以直接被排除。


Q1:

考察所有格和单复数的混淆。难度不高一一前文有a plant,所以后面the plant是单数。

The appearance of flowers on a plant marks a change from the 【plants' growth phase to it】reproductive phase.

所以应该是the plant's growth phase to its这个都是单数的选项。


Q2:

语气题。选择比较正式的语气。

signs from the universe--来自宇宙的信号 这个选项是不如第三个选项那样明确的。

Earth's instructions,--地球的指导

environmental cues,--环境信号

Mother Nature's messages,--地球母亲的讯息


Q3:

句子合并题目合并划线部分

Studies of the molecular control of flowering in the species Arbidopsis thaliana have revealed that,in general, some of these plants are exposed to a lower temperature. These plants will flower much later(as measured by the number of leaves a plant has at the time of flowering)than those exposed to a higher temperature.



最后选择plants exposed to a lower temperature,这个选项。不选择最短的那个选项。最短的选项的意思表达错了。


Q4:

主谓一致题目。that的主语是flowering,所以谓语动词要用三单。所以应该选【results,】

Lower temperatures have been found to delay the production of the floral activators and the

flowering that result,whereas higher temperatures have been found to promote them.


Q5:

选择过渡句

前面一段的最后提出了一个问题:But how,exactly,does temperature influence floral-activator

production?所以应该选【To answer this question,】


Q6:

图标题

根据数据,应该选16。

They found three such varieties,among them Nd-O,which flowers with approximately【16】

leaves per plant at 23C


Q7:

句子添加和删除题

and KZ-9,which flowers with more leaves per plant as the temperature rises.

问这句话删不删除。

应该删掉,因为数据的描述不对。数据是温度越高叶子越少,但是句子表述是温度越高叶子越多。


Q8:

标点符号题

In each of the mutant varieties,two genes,FLM and SVP,were found to have mutations that

disrupted the relationship between flowering and temperature.

把这个FLM and SVP作为插入语。


Q9:

考察平行结构

In nonmutant plants,the protein products Of the FLM and SVP genes bind to each other and then

together 【repressing】 production of floral activators.

前面是bind,后面是repress,平行.


Q10:

At 16C the protein binding is prevalent,blocking floral-activator production,while at 23C there

are fewer FLM and SVP proteins bound to each other,allowing production to,occur.

应该选allowing,production to occur,这里才能和前文所对应。


Q11:

考察定语从句;考察形近词。这里effect是名词,affect是动词。

These molecular interactions demonstrate the 【affect that】 an environmental factor can have on genetic control.

这里应该选择effect that,因为后文的从句部分an environmental factor can have >是缺成分的, can have 后面没有宾语,所以必须选择一个关系代词。最后排除affect,应该选择effect.


数学部分


数学部分总体难度适中,但是涉及的知识点内容较广,但是总体没有难度很大的题目。


在统计部分箱线图有两道大题,但只考到了从箱线图中识别median和range,没有更多需要大家进行操作的内容;


点图考到了从图像中直接观察平均值和中位数之间的关系;也考到了去掉最高至最低值之后对于整体数据指标的影响。


在代数方面,考查到了直线图像和方程组的解联动的题目,但是难度并不高。在计算方面,没有非常多需要用到计算器的内容,也没有需要进行四舍五入的小数题目。总体而言,在北美的考试并没有亚太题目坑多、题难。


写作部分


本次SAT考试写作部分,CB官方再次选取了美国公共政策顾问和美国国际象牙协会代表的Godfrey Harris的文章《How to save both elephants and the ivory trade》,这篇文章于2014年发表于《洛杉矶时报》上。不少同学一看到作者名字和ivory这个词,就觉得似曾相识。果不其然,CB官方这次又走了跟3月亚太A卷一个套路——“老瓶灌新酒”,甚至说是“老瓶罐老酒”。


3月考完,大家就无限感叹《let there be less light》和当年OG里的《let there be dark》实在太相似了。而本次考试与2016年11月的考试中Godfrey Harris和Daniel Stiles的《The Wrong Way to Protect Elephants》是完全同种类型的。


原文呈现


Because of British currency restrictions enacted just before World War II, my father had to come up with an innovative way of getting his cash out of England when, fearing a German invasion, we immigrated to the United States. He settled on silver. Before leaving, he purchased all the Georgian silver objects he could find, with the idea of selling them once the family reached America.

 A few months after we arrived, he opened the Harris English Silver Co. in Manhattan. While wartime rationing made many everyday items difficult to obtain, the demands of holidays, birthdays and anniversaries still required special gifts. Antique silver answered that need for many New Yorkers.

By 1944 my father had made more than enough to move the family to California, where he sold most of the remainder of his original inventory. Things were going so well that he decided to take a buying trip to England in 1948, and he took me along as his 11-year-old assistant. At each antique shop we visited, he would slowly survey the goods on display, identify the pieces of particular interest, and then have all the items brought together in one spot where he could inspect them. I was told to pick out anything that caught my eye and bring those pieces, too, to the central collection point.

I soon found that the pieces I gravitated to — boxes, doll house furnishings, knife rests, small carvings, writing implements, hand tools and the like — tended to have one thing in common: They were nearly all made of ivory.

When the shipment from that buying trip reached Los Angeles, my father gave me most of the items I had selected, and that was the start of my ivory collection. After becoming a U.S. diplomat, I added to these original items during trips abroad. And I soon became fascinated by the different uses to which ivory has been put — some practical, because of the material’s special properties, and some decorative, because of its unusual beauty.

Ivory pieces, like other artistic expressions, reflect the time and cultures that produced them. That’s one of the main reasons people collect artifacts of any sort: to preserve the best examples of cultural expression.

Today, however, ivory collections like mine — and ivory collectors themselves — are being vilified. The current debate in Washington over ivory policy has far less to do with protecting elephants than it does with satisfying the assumptions of animal rights groups, making things simple for government officials and accommodating the special wants of hunters and the special needs of musicians and museum curators. Collectors have little voice in the debate, and their collections have been likened to blood diamonds or denigrated as vanity indulgences. Any harm that American collectors suffer from the new regulations has been dismissed by Dan Ashe, director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as collateral damage for the greater good of saving elephants.

Ashe has issued an order that virtually eliminates all trade and movement in the United States of objects made from or with ivory — no matter their origin, age or provenance — by requiring unimpeachable, detailed documentation on the ivory contained in a piece. To buy, trade or sell such pieces, collectors must have original bills of sale or repair invoices or proof of the year of importation into the United States. No collector and very few antique dealers can produce that kind of documentation, especially since none of it was required at the time most of the pieces were imported or purchased. How many treasures inherited from a relative or given as gifts come with written proof of where they came from or how they got here?

These draconian new rules have not been promulgated casually. Ashe believes that virtually ending all trade in African ivory in the United States — thus sending a message that ivory is valueless — is the best way to protect African elephants from the ravishes of poachers.

But that’s unrealistic and unproven. Today’s poaching problem has its roots in East Asia, where there is still a strong demand for and an active trade in new ivory objects. Demonizing older ivory objects to discourage possession of newer versions of similar items will not bring back the mammoths or save modern elephants from the economic forces that drive poachers.

Indeed, the International Ivory Society, on whose advisory board I sit, believes that taking valuable ivory objects out of circulation will only increase the market price for raw ivory abroad and put elephants in even more danger than at the present.

Everyone is rightly concerned with the plight of African elephants and the horrors that poachers are inflicting on herds across the continent. All of us want to find the right solution to stabilize elephant populations in Africa through sound economic and conservation policies. But the answer must not come at the expense of collectors who play such an important role in preserving important, interesting and revelatory objects in our cultural history.


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